Quantitative EBIC

Quantitative EBIC-System

Kammrath & Weiss GmbH provides two EBIC system versions.

The ‘Quantitative EBIC System’ is a powerful system that provides many functions for measurement and analysis. It contains an EBIC measurement electronic, a scan generator, a special specimen holder for EBIC, a feedthough flange, and software. With the scan generator the EBIC-signal can be combined with the scan raster of the microscope. The corresponding software provides many functions such as grey scale analysis, line scan, point measurement, EBIC current analysis and much more.

For simple EBIC measurements the ‘Basic EBIC System’ can be used. It contains an EBIC measurement electronic, a special specimen holder for EBIC and a feedthrough flange. The signal output can be connected to the microscope ‘ext’ input. With this system the EBIC-image is handled with the microscope software and controller.

The EBIC Measurement Electronics

The amplifier processes the incoming EBIC signal and sends the amplified signal to the imaging system.

  • resolution <10 pA (depending on the specimen)
  • gain adjustment coarse 103 … 1010 V/A
  • gain adjustment fine 0.1 … 100 × continuously
  • input offset
  • output offset
  • signal inversion
  • zero balance
  • adjustable low pass filter
  • current source for calibration*
  • adjustable biasing (+/- 10 V)*
  • output for beam current measurement (extern)*
  • AC-output* for external Lock-In amplifier
  • signal output to imaging system (0 … 1 V)

The Basic System enables the adjustment of the gain and offset. In the Quantitative System the EBIC signal is handled by the scan generator allowing full functionality as described here and below.

* Included with the Quantitative System only

Operation Modes:

The EBIC electronic is controlled by the software. It provides different operation modes, as listed in the table below. Each operation mode automatically adjusts the electronic for the operation selected. The measurement parameters are separately saved or loaded for each mode.

Operation Mode



EBIC measurement


EBIC measurement with biasing

EBIC + Comp

EBIC measurement with the compensation of a high basic signal (e.g. additional illumination)

Zero Adjustment

Zero balance of the EBIC preamplifier

10 nA Calibration

10 nA test current

Beam Current

measurement of the beam current with an external
picoampere meter

The Scan Generator

The scan generator is indispensible for the quantitative EBIC measurement, since quantitative EBIC measurement is understood as localized measurement of the EBIC-current. That is in contrast with the simple EBIC measurement, where the EBIC image is only a grey scaled one without information about the current.

  • max. image resolution 16384 × 16384 pixel, free image format
  • USB 2.0 interface
  • size of the box: 235 mm × 290 mm × 90 mm
  • 4 analogue signal inputs (SE, BSE, CL)
  • 12 counter inputs (X-Ray mapping, optional)

The EBIC Specimen Holder
(The EBIC module)

The specimen is electrically isolated from the rest of the microscope. The reduced size of the unshielded parts reduces the noise. Beside the specimen a faraday cup enables accurate measurement of the beam current. This contains a changeable aperture (only for the quantitative EBIC system).

The needle holder is a simple manually movable prober which enables a secure connection to the specimen. The movement of the needles can be performed with two screws. The movement ranges are:

Vertical movement:    5 mm
Angular movement:   -25 … 90°
Forward movement:  depends on the needle length

The following options are available:

  • additional needle holder
  • Pt/Ir and tungsten needles with tip diameters down to 50 nm
  • apertures with a hole diameter down to 5 mm
  • expandable up to 6 needle holders (more on request)
  • compatible with motorized probers
  • optional compatible with air locks

The Feedthrough Flange

The feedthrough flange provides two isolated electrical feedthroughs.

The EBIC Software

The EBIC software provides the following functions:

  • signal monitor for checking the EBIC amplifier settings
  • simultaneous recording of SE- and EBIC-images
  • equidensity graphics
  • semi automatic measurement
  • transfer of the SEM parameters HV, Mag, WD
  • TV scan, slow scan, mapping, line scan, point measurement
  • reduced area scan with zoom
  • AVI function with fast motion
  • buildable, configurable scan buttons
  • signal monitor with live gradation curve
  • integrated image processing
  • compatible with Windows 2000 up to Windows 7
  • Saving all parameters in the image
  • Calculation and display of the EBIC signal
  • 16 bit TIF image file
  • File export to Excel
  • image acquisition software with options for quantitative EBIC image analysis
  • direct display of the EBIC current for line and point measurement

Live image

The live image can replace the SEM monitor completely.

  • 12 frames per second for video resolution of 768 x 576 pixels
  • image size and image format variable
  • full screen mode, also on a second monitor
  • signal monitor to control contrast and brightness
  • live graduation curves and gamma control
  • live colour mixing-function for all image signals

Image acquisition up to 256 mega pixels

Resolution and scan speed can be varied in wide ranges for high quality images.

  • simultaneous acquisition of up to 4 analogue signals
  • variable image resolution up to 16,000 x 16,000 pixels
  • digitizing of analogue image signals with 12 Bit
  • slow-scan with up to 32,000× oversampling
  • fast-scan with line and frame-averaging
  • mains synchronization for frame and line
  • automatic brightness and contrast
  • thumbnail bar for acquired images
  • configurable image caption with micron bar

Mapping, line scan, point measurement

These are functions for live imaging and acquisition of EBIC images.

  • concurrent capture of up to 12 images
  • combination with analogue image signals
  • live colour mixing function for all image signals
  • variable image resolution and measurement time
  • 16 Bit counting range per pixel
  • accumulation of several image cycles
  • measuring of lines, points, areas
  • output of line diagrams, measuring data in tables
  • quantitative mapping, line-scan, point measurement

Inspector Panel

This panel shows the grey values by mouse rollover.

  • digital value of all signals by mouse rollover
  • values for the same coordinates in all images
  • calculated EBIC current independent of the image settings offset and gain

Zoom window

Zoom window is a helpful instrument for optimal focusing, aperture adjustment and astigmatism correction also with low beam currents.

  • easy change of window size with mouse
  • real zoom with mouse wheel up to factor 20
  • high image quality by combination of oversampling,
  • frame averaging and mains synchronization

AVI-Function (optional)

With the AVI-function you can capture video sequences.

  • image size and image format variable
  • adjustable frame rate
  • fast-motion
  • configurable comment line with micron bar
  • saving as uncompressed AVI

The Image Processing Software

This software enables additional processing functions for SE and EBIC images.

  • loading, saving and printing of images
  • brightness, contrast, histogram function, matrix filter
  • labelling within the image, comment line with micron bar
  • measuring of lengths, angles, radii
  • pseudo-colour mixing of images
  • display of equivalent densities with area calculation
  • phase analysis of elemental mapping images
  • context sensitive online help
  • also available as offline-version

Measuring functions, structure measurement

The software offers calibrated, easy-to-use measurement functions with data export.

  • measurement of lengths, angles, radii
  • export of measured data as *.xls, *.html, *.txt
  • dimensioning of images
  • semi-automatic measurement of the line width
  • automatic die identification
  • spline-interpolation for noise suppression, allows measurements in sub-pixel-range
  • averaging of measurement over several lines

Semi-automatic structure measurement

With this option measurement errors can be minimized.

  • threshold method: the user can select the edges to measure with mouse, the software automatically
  • aligns the measurement cursors to the specified threshold between edge minimum and edge maximum
  • several lines can be averaged for the measurement
  • spline interpolation for noise suppression, enables measurements in sub-pixel range
  • line profile for visual control and display of the measured distance in the image
  • measured distance can be burned into the image together with a dimensioning label
  • measured values can be taken over into a measurement table


EBIC electronics

  • resolution <10 pA (depending on the specimen)
  • zero balance
  • current source for calibration *
  • adjustable biasing (+/- 10 V)*
  • output for beam current measurement (extern)*
  • adjustable low pass filter
  • signal inversion
  • gain adjustment coarse 103 … 109 V/A
  • gain adjustment fine × 0.1 …… 100
  • input offset
  • output offset
  • AC-output for Lock-In amplifier*
  • signal output to imaging system (0 .. 1 V)
  • Lock-In measurement electronic (optional)
  • external picoampere meter (optional)

* only available with the Quantitative system

Image acquisition

  • USB 2.0 interface for command and data transfer
  • Compatible with Windows 2000 up to Windows 7
  • Active scan generator
  • Max. 16.384 × 16.384 pixels, free image format
  • 4 × 12 bit D/A converter for analogue image signals
  • 12 × 16 bit counter for mapping
  • Live image with 15 fps and 512 × 512 pixels resolution
  • Simultaneous acquisition of all image signals
  • Up to 32.000× oversampling for noise-free images
  • Line averaging, frame averaging
  • Reduced area scan with zoom for easy focusing and astigmatism correction
  • Mapping, line-scan, point measurement
  • Export of line profiles as image or measuring data of line-scan and point measurements
  • AVI-function for acquisition of video sequences, with fast-motion (optional)
  • Channel-mixer for live-mixing of the image signals with selectable colour classification, Topo/Combo function
  • Signal monitor to control image signals, live gamma and gradation curves
  • System can be calibrated by software to every SEM, saveable calibration sets for various Mag, HV, WD
  • Trigger-inputs and clock-outputs for point, line, image
  • Mains synchronization for slow-scan
  • Thumbnail bar for acquired images
  • Configurable image acquisition functions for routine actions:
  • Scan buttons can be added, configured and labelled
  • Signal sources, image resolution and image format
  • Line averaging up to 50×
  • Frame averaging up to 256×
  • Gate time for mapping
  • Automatic for brightness and contrast

Image processing

  • Compatible with Windows 2000 up to Windows 7
  • Image browser
  • Loading of the following file types: TIFF, BMP, JPEG, PNG, GIF
  • Saving of images in the following file types: TIFF, BMP, JPEG, PNG, GIF
  • Saving of image data, calibration, point-, line scan data with the image
  • Auto-save function
  • Layout functionality to save belonging together images
  • Printing of single images or layouts, also with different zoom
  • Creation of image sections
  • Image rotation
  • Measurement functions for distances, angles and radii in image
  • Image labelling
  • configurable image caption with micron bar and image parameters
  • False colour representation of images, image-mixing function
  • Brightness, contrast, histogram function, configurable matrix filter
  • Equidensity representation with area calculation
  • Export of point scan, line scan and measurement data as *.xls, *.html, *.txt
  • Semi-automatic structure measurement

microscope accessory

  • isolated specimen holder
  • Faraday Cup with changeable aperture*
  • 1 aperture included
  • isolated needle holder with changeable needle
  • 10 needles included
  • manual vertical movement:   5 mm
  • manual angular movement:  -25° … 90°
  • manual forward movement:  5 mm
  • holder for standard specimen stubs
  • capability of two specimen mounting positions for top and cross section measurements (optional)
  • air lock compatible (optional)
  • cables with double shielding
  • flange with 2 isolated feedthroughs
  • tungsten and Pt/Ir-needles with tip diameters down to 50 nm available
  • other aperture sizes are available

* only available with the Quantitative system

Scope of Delivery

for the Quantitative EBIC system

  • EBIC measurement electronic
  • Scan generator
  • Software
  • EBIC module
  • 1 needle
  • 1 aperture
  • Flange

for the Basic EBIC system

  • EBIC measurement electronic with limited operation modes
  • EBIC module
  • 1 needle
  • 1 aperture
  • Flange

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